点亮碳纳米管(翻译,附全文)


Carbon
nanotubes
light
up
2
May
2003

::URL::http://www.physicsweb.org/article/news/7/5/3

Scientists
at
IBM
Research
in
the
US
have
obtained
light
from

a
carbon
nanotube
by
passing
a
current
through
it.
Phaedon

Avouris
and
co-workers
say
that
the
device
could
be
used
to

fabricate
ultrasmall
optoelectronics
devices
for
applications
in

high-speed
communications
(J
A
Misewich
et
al.
2003
Science

300
783).

IBM美国研究院的科学家利用电流通过碳纳米管从中获得了光.Phaedon
Avouris和他的合作者们说这个器件能够用来制造用于高速通讯的超微小
光电器件.

Light-emitting
devices
rely
on
charge
carriers

electrons
and

holes

being
brought
together
so
that
they
can
recombine
to
emit
photons.
Single-walled
carbon
nanotubes
have
been

used
as
field-effect
transistors
before
and
now
the
IBM
team

has
succeeded
in
obtaining
light
from
them.
Previous

nanotubes
have
only
emitted
light
when
excited
by
another

light
source
such
as
a
laser.

发光器件依赖载流子-电子和空穴-合在一起以便他们能复合发出光子.单
层碳纳米管已经被用于场效应晶体管,现在IBM小组成功的从中得到了光.
以前的纳米管只有在别的光源比如激光来激发后才会发光.

图一
screen.width/2)this.width=screen.width/2;’ >

Avouris
and
colleagues
used
single
nanotubes
to
make
a

three-terminal
FET
device.
They
randomly
dispersed
the

nanotubes

each
about
1.4
nanometres
in
diameter

onto
a

silicon
substrate
that
contained
a
150
nanometre
silicon

dioxide
layer.
”Source”
and
”drain”
contacts
were
then
added
at
either
end
of
the
device
so
that
electrons
and
holes
could
be

injected
(figure
1).
The
electrons
and
holes
recombined
in
the
nanotube
to
emit
infrared
radiation
at
wavelengths
longer

than
about
0.8
microns.
This
included
light
at
a
wavelength
of

1.5
micrometres,
which
is
widely
used
in
fibre-optic

communications
(figure
2).

Avouris和他的同事利用单纳米管制造了一个三级FET(场效应晶体管)器
件.他们把纳米管-每个直径大约1.4纳米-随机的撒在有150纳米厚二氧
化硅薄层的硅基底上.然后”源”极和”漏”极被加到器件的每端上,以便发射
电子和空穴.电子和空穴在碳纳米管中复合发出波长长于1.5微米的红外
光.这里面包括1.5微米波长的光,它被广泛的应用于光纤通讯.(图二)

图二
screen.width/2)this.width=screen.width/2;’ >

The
device
does
not
rely
on
doping
to
create
charge
carriers,

as
silicon
transistors
do,
but
is
”biased”
so
that
one
part
of
the

nanotube
conducts
electrons
while
the
other
conducts
holes.

This
is
achieved
by
the
formation
of
Schottky
barriers


potential
barriers
that
electrons
can
tunnel
through

at
the

source
and
drain.

The
wavelength
of
the
emission
is
determined
by
the
band

gap
of
the
nanotube,
which
depends
on
the
diameter
of
the

nanotube.
Changing
the
thickness
of
the
silicon
dioxide
layer

and
using
other
materials
to
construct
the
device
might

improve
the
overall
efficiency
according
to
the
IBM
team.

这个器件不依赖于参杂创造电荷壁垒,就像硅晶体管那样,但是它是偏移的,
所以纳米管的一部分传导电子而另一部分传导空穴.这通过在源极和漏极
的肖特基壁垒-电子能够隧穿的势垒-的形成而实现.发射光的波长有纳米
管的带隙决定,带隙由纳米管的直径决定.据IBM小组,改变二氧化硅层的厚
度以及利用其它材料来制造器件可能会改善整体的效率.

Author
Belle
Dum?is
Science
Writer
at
PhysicsWeb

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